Abrasion resistance is the ability of a fiber, yarn, or fabric to maintain physical properties or appearance despite surface friction.
ACT® Performance Guidelines help to make fabric specification easier, ACT member companies adopted a body of popular tests that measure important performance criteria (abrasion & flame resistance, etc.) for fabrics in the contract interiors market. www.contracttextiles.org
American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) is the world’s largest society devoted to the advancement of textile chemists and colorists. www.aatcc.org
Angora is the fiber or hairs of the Angora goat or the Angora rabbit, often blended with wool for soft hand and added luxury.
Antimicrobial finish is the chemical treatment applied to a fabric to combat growth of disease-causing microbes, general bacteria and infectious diseases.
Air Jet Spinning is a yarn spinning system in which yarn is made by wrapping fibers around a core stream of fibers with compressed air.
The porosity, or the ease with which air passes through material. Air permeability determines such factors as the wind resistance of sailcloth, the air resistance of parachute cloth, and the efficiency of various types of air filtration media. It is also a measure of warmness or coolness of a fabric.
Alternating Twist is a texturing procedure in which S and Z twist are alternately inserted in the yarn by means of a special heating apparatus.
Aramid Fiber is a manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming material is a long chain synthetic polyamide having at least 85% of its amide linkages (-NH-CO-) attached directly to two aromatic rings.
Autoclave is an apparatus for the carrying out of certain finishing operations, such as pleating and heat setting, under pressure in a super-heated steam atmosphere.
Balanced Cloth is a term describing a woven fabric with the same size yarn and the same number of threads per inch in both the warp and the fill direction.
A variation of the plain weave in which two or more warp and filling yarns are woven side to side to resemble a plaited basket.
Beam is a cylinder of wood or metal, usually with a circular flange on each end, on which warp yarns are wound for slashing, weaving, and warp knitting.
Beaming is the operation of winding warp yarns onto a beam usually in preparation for slashing, weaving, or warp knitting. This process is also called warping.
Beating–Up refers to the last operation of the loom in weaving, in which the last pick inserted in the fabric is “beat” into position against the preceding pick, usually by a “comb-like” device called a reed.
Bicomponent Yarns are Spun or filament yarns of two generic fibers or two variants of the same generic fiber.
Bi-directional Fabric is a fabric having reinforcing fibers in two directions, i.e. in the warp (machine) direction and filling (cross-machine) direction.
Bleeding is the loss of color by a fabric or yarn when immersed in water, a solvent, or similar liquid medium, as a result of improper dyeing or the use of dyes of poor quality.
- A yarn obtained when two or more staple fibers are combined in a textile process for producing spun yarns.
- A fabric that contains a blended yarn in both the warp and filling direction.
Blending is the combining of staple fibers of different physical characteristics to assure a uniform distribution of these fibers throughout the yarn.
- A narrow textile band, often used as trimming or binding, formed by plaiting several strands of yarn. The fabric is formed by interlacing the yarns diagonally to the production axis of the material.
- In aerospace textiles, a system of three or more yarns which are interlaced in such a way that no two yarns are twisted around each other.
- Biaxial Braid – Braided structure with two yarn systems running in one direction and the other in the opposite direction.
- Triaxial Braid – a braided structure with axial yarns running in the longitudinal direction.
A narrow fabric made by crossing a number of strands diagonally so that each strand passes alternately over or under one or more of the other strands.
The interwinding of three or more strands to make a cord or narrow fabric.
A measure of yarn strength calculated as:
- The product of breaking strength times the indirect yarn number.
- The product of breaking strength times the reciprocal of the direct yarn number.
- The maximum resultant internal force that resists rupture in a tension test.
- The load (or force) required to break, or rupture, a specimen in a tensile test made according to a specified standard procedure.
The tensile stress at rupture of a specimen expressed as Newtons per Tex (cN/tex).
Broadcloth is a fabric so named because it is woven in widths exceeding 29 inches.
Woven fabrics 18 inches or more in width.
Broken End is a broken, untied warp yarn in a fabric. Broken ends can result from: slubs, knots, improper shuttle alignment, shuttle hitting the warp shed, excessive warp tension, faulty sizing, and rough reeds, heddles, dropwires, or shuttles.
Broken Pick is a broken filling yarn in a fabric. Broken picks can result from: excessive shuttle tension, weak yarn, or filling coming in contact with a sharp surface.
Cabled Yarn is a yarn formed by twisting together two or more plied yarns.
A machine used in finishing to impart a variety of surface effects to fabrics. A calender essentially consists of two or more heavy rollers, sometimes heated, through which the fabric is passed under heavy pressure.
A mechanical finishing process for fabrics used to produce special effects, such as high luster, glazing, moiré, and embossed effects.
A high-tensile fiber or whisker made by heating rayon or polyacrylonitrile fibers or petroleum residues to appropriate temperatures. Fibers may be 7 to 8 microns in diameter and more than 90% carbonized.
Cloth is a generic term embracing all textile fabrics and felts. Cloth may be formed out of any textile fiber, wire, or material.
Coated Fabric is a fabric to which a substance such as lacquer, plastic, resin, rubber, or varnish has been applied in firmly adhering layers to provide certain properties, such as water impermeability.
Coating is the application of a semi-liquid material such as rubber, polyvinyl chloride, or polyurethane to one or both sides of the textile material. Once the coating has dried (cured) it forms a bond with the fabric.
Color changes in localized areas of a garment resulting from differential wear.
Resistance to fading, i.e. the ability of a dye to retain its color when the dyed or printed textile material is exposed to conditions or agents such as light, perspiration, atmospheric gases, or washing that can remove color.
An individual or organization that buys greige fabrics and sells them as a finished product to cutters, wholesalers, retailers, and others. The converter arranges for the finishing of the fabric.
The process of making a core-spun yarn. It consists of feeding the core yarn into the front delivery roll of the spinning frame and of covering the core yarn with a sheath of fibers during the spinning operation.
Core-Spun Yarn is a yarn made by twisting fibers around a filament or a previously spun yarn, thus concealing the core.
Creel is a framework arranged to hold slivers, roving, or yarns so that many ends can be withdrawn smoothly and evenly without tangling.
Creeling is the mounting of supply packages in a creel to feed fiber to a process, i.e. beaming, warping, or weaving.
- The waviness of a fiber expressed as crimps per unit length.
- The difference in distance between two points on an unstretched fiber and the same two points when the fiber is straightened under tension.
- The difference in the distance between two points when the yarn has been removed from the fabric and straightened under specific tension expressed as a percentage of the distance between the two points as the yarn lies in the fabric.Crocking
The rubbing-off of dye from a fabric as a result of insufficient dye penetration of fixation, the use of improper dyes or dyeing methods or insufficient washing and treatment after the dyeing operation. Crocking can occur under either wet or dry conditions.
Mass per unit volume usually expressed as grams per cubic centimeter (g/cc). Also known as specific gravity.
The weight, in grams, of 9000 meters of yarn. The lower the denier number the finer the size of yarn, and the higher the number the larger the size of yarn. In countries other than the USA, Denier is replaced by the Tex system.
Denier per filament (dpf)
The denier of an individual continuous filament or an individual staple fiber if it were continuous.
The denier of filament yarn. It is the product of the denier per filament and the number of filaments in the yarn.
Usually variation in diameter, or other cross-sectional dimension, along the length of a filament or bundle of filaments. Malfunction or lack of process control in fiber manufacturing causes denier variation.
Dimensional Stability is the ability of textile material to maintain or return to its original geometric configuration.
Dobby is a mechanical attachment on a loom that controls the harness to permit the weaving of geometric figures.
Drape is a term to describe the way a fabric falls while it hangs; the suppleness and ability of a fabric to form graceful configurations.
Drawing-in occurs in weaving the process of threading warp ends through the eyes of the heddles and the dents of the reed.
A process of coloring fibers, yarns, or fabrics with either a natural or synthetic dye. A partial list of dyeing methods follows:
- Pad Dyeing – A form of dyeing whereby a dye solution is applied by means of a pad or mangle.
- Pressure Dyeing – Dyeing by means of forced circulation of dye through packages of fiber, yarn, or fabric under pressure.
- Skein Dyeing – The dyeing of yarn, fiber, or fabric in the form of skeins, or hanks.
- Yarn Dyeing – The dyeing of yarn before the fabric is woven or knit.
Elastomers are synthetic polymers having properties of natural rubber such as stretch-ability and recovery.
Electrical Conductivity is the measure of the ease of transporting electric charge from one point to another in an electric field.
The deformation in the direction of load caused by a tensile force. Elongation is measured in units of length (inches, millimeters) or calculated as a percentage of the original specimen length. Elongation may be measured at a specific load or at the breaking point.
Elongation at Break is the increase in length when the last component of the specimen breaks. Usually expressed as %.
End is referred to as an individual warp yarn. A warp is composed of a number of ends.
End Out is the void caused by a missing warp yarn.
Entering is the process of threading each warp yarn on a loom beam through a separate drop wire, heddle, and reed space in preparation for weaving.
Extraction is the removal of one substance from another, often accomplished by a solvent.
A planar textile structure produced by interlacing yarns, fibers, or filaments.
The details of structure of fabric. These include such information as style, width, type of weave, or knit, yarns per inch in warp and fill, and weight of goods.
Fabric Crimp is the angulation induced between a yarn and a woven fabric via the weaving or braiding process.
A unit of matter, natural or manufactured, that forms the basic element of fabrics and other textile structures.
Fiber Number is the linear density of a fiber expressed in units such as denier or Tex.
A fiber of an indefinite or extreme length, such as one found in plant or animal structures. Manufactured fibers are extruded into filaments that are converted into filament yarn, staple, or tow.
Filament Yarn is a yarn composed of continuous filaments assembled with or without twist.
In woven fabric, the yarn running from selvage to selvage at right angles to the warp. Each crosswise length is called a pick. In the weaving process, a shuttle, rapier, or other type of yarn carrier carries the filling yarn.
- A substance or mixture of substances added to textile materials to impart desired properties.
- A process, physical, or chemical performed on textile materials to produce a desired effect.
- A property, such as smoothness, drape, luster, water repellency, flame retardancy, or crease resistance that is produced by 1 and/or 2.
Finished Fabric is a fabric that is ready for the market, having passed through the required finishing process.
Finishing are all the processes through which fabric is passed after bleaching, dyeing, or printing in preparation for the market or use.
Flame Resistant is a term used to describe a material that burns slowly, or is self-extinguishing after removal of an external source of ignition.
Flame Retardant is a chemical compound that can be incorporated into a textile fiber during manufacture, or applied to a fiber, fabric, or other textile item during processing to reduce its flammability.
Used with an extra filling yarn during weaving, this type of standing wire controls the height of fabric pile.
Manufactured fiber products made into fabrics of various constructions for use in a wide variety of civil engineering applications. Examples include erosion control fabrics, drainage fabrics, and asphalt overlay fabrics.
A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is glass. These fibers are incombustible and will tolerate heat up to 1000°F. However, the resulting fabric is brittle and fracture points may develop.
Although the terms carbon and graphite are used interchangeably, graphite fibers are more accurately defined as fibers that are 99+% carbonized, while the term carbon is used for any fiber carbonized from 93% to 95% or more.
Greige Fabric (pronounced gray) is an unfinished fabric just off the loom or knitting machine.
A fabric with prominent ribs. Grosgrain has a dressy appearance and is used in ribbons, vestments, and ceremonial cloths.
Hand is the tactile qualities of a fabric, e.g. softness, firmness, elasticity, fineness, resilience, and other qualities perceived by touch.
Heat Setting is the process of conferring dimensional stability and other desirable properties (wrinkle resistance and improved heat resistance) by means of either moist or dry heat.
Heat Stabilized is a term to describe fiber or yarn heat-treated to reduce the tendency of the fiber to shrink, elongate under a load, or at elevated temperatures.
Is a broken twill weave characterized by a balanced zig-zag effect produced by having the rib run first to the right and then to the left for an equal number of threads.
A term that refers to a material with a higher than normal resistance to deformation.
Hollow Filament Fibers
Manufactured, continuous filament fibers, having voids created by introduction of air, or other gas in the polymer solution, or melt spinning through specially designed spinnerets.
Homespun is a course plain-weave fabric of uneven yarns that have a handspun appearance.
Hopsacking is a course, open, basket-weave fabric that gets its name from the plain-weave fabric of jute or hemp used for sacking in which hops are gathered.
Impregnated Fabric is a fabric in which the interstices between the yarns are completely filled, as compared to sized or coated materials where the interstices are not completely filled.
A broad term for fabrics used for non-apparel and non-decorative uses. They fall into the following classes:
- Fabrics employed in industrial processes (e.g. filtration, polishing, and absorption).
- Fabrics combined with other materials to form a different material (e.g. rubberized fabric for hose, belting, tires, timing gears, bearings, and electrical parts).
- Fabrics impregnated with an adhesive and dielectric compounds.
- Fabrics incorporated directly in a finished product (e.g. sales, tarps, tents, awnings, and specialty belts for agricultural machinery, airplanes, and conveyers).
Fabrics developed for industrial use cover a wide variety of widths, weights, and construction. In many cases, they have been painstakingly developed to meet a specific application.
A system of weaving that utilizes a highly versatile pattern mechanism to permit the production of large, intricate designs and shapes. The weave controls the action of one warp yarn for the passage of one pick. Each card perforation machine may carry a large number of cards, depending upon the design, because there is a separate card for each pick in the pattern.
Jet Loom is a shuttleless loom that employs a jet of water, or air to carry the filling yarn through the shed.
Kink in fabrics, is a place where a short length of yarn has spontaneously doubled back on itself.
Knit Fabric is a fabric structure produced by inter-looping one or more ends of yarn or comparable material.
A method of constructing fabric by interlocking series of loops of one or more yarns. Knitting Types:
- Warp Knitting – A type of knitting in which the yarns generally run lengthwise in the fabric. The yarns are prepared as warps on beams with one or more yarns for each needle. Examples include; Rachel (a plain or lacy knit) and Tricot (run resistant) Knitting.
- Weft Knitting – A common type of knitting, in which one continuous thread runs crosswise in the fabric making all of the loops in one course. An example is Circular Knitting, where the fabric produced on the knitting machine is in the form of a tube, the threads running continuously around the fabric.
Lace is an ornamental openwork fabric, made from a variety of designs by intricate manipulation of the fiber by machine or hand.
A weave in which the warp yarns are arranged in pairs with one twisted around the other between picks of filling yarn. This type of weave gives firmness and strength to an open-weave fabric and prevents slippage and displacement of warp and filling yarns.
Leveling the migration leading to uniform distribution of dye in a dyed material. Leveling may be a property of the dye or it may require chemical assistance.
Machines for weaving fabric by interlacing a series of vertical parallel yarns (the warp) with a series of horizontal parallel yarns (the filling). The warp yarns from a beam pass through the heddles and reed, and the filling is passed through the “shed” of warp threads by means of a shuttle, or other device and is settled into place by the reed and lay. The primary distinction between different types of looms is the manner of filling insertion.
Lot is a unit of production, or group of other units, or packages that is taken for sampling, statistical examination, having one or more common properties and being separable from other similar lots.
A class name for various genera of fibers (including filaments) produced from fiber forming substances which may be polymers synthesized from chemical compounds (acrylic, nylon, polyester, polyethylene), modified, or transformed natural polymers (cellulose-based fibers like acetate and rayon) and minerals, e.g. glasses. The term manufactured usually refers to chemically produced fibers to distinguish them from truly natural fibers such as cotton, wool, silk, and flax.
Melting Point is the temperature at which the solid and liquid states of a substance are in equilibrium; generally the temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid.
Refers to fibers having less than 1 denier per filament or 0.1 Tex per filament.
Mill Run is a yarn, fabric, or other textile product that has not been inspected, or does not come up to standard quality.
Mock Leno is a combination of weaves having interlacing that tend to form the warp ends into groups in the cloth. This gives the imitation of an open structure that is characteristic of leno fabrics.
Moiré is a wavy, or watered effect on a textile fabric. It is produced by passing the fabric between engraved cylinders that press the design into the material, causing the crushed and uncrushed parts to reflect light differently.
Moisture Regain is the measure of the increase in weight due to the adsorption of water by a fiber vs. its initial dry weight. Usually expressed as %.
Mono-filament is any single filament of a manufactured fiber, usually of a denier higher than 14. Rather than a group of filaments being extruded through spinnerets to form a yarn, mono-filaments generally are spun individually.
Monomer is the un-polymerized form of a compound from which a polymer can be made.
Multi-filament is yarn consisting of many strands, as opposed to mono-filament, which is one strand. Most textile yarns are multi-filament.
Narrow Fabric is any non-elastic woven fabric, 12 inches, or less in width, having a selvage on either side.
Natural Fiber is a class name for the various fibers of animal (wool and silk), mineral (asbestos) or vegetable (cotton, flax, and jute).
Needle Loom is a high-speed narrow fabric-weaving machine (loom) that uses a needle to insert filling across a warp. A needle loom uses a catch cord system to make a selvage on one edge of the weave and to return the pick after anchoring it within the selvage.
A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is a long chain synthetic polyamide having recurring amide groups (-NH-CO-) as an integral part of the polymer chain.
A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed at least 85% by weight of ethylene, polyethylene, or other olefin unit. Olefin fibers combine lightweight with high strength and abrasion resistance.
Orientation is the degree of parallelism in either yarn production or chemically like a chain of molecules.
Orifice is an opening. Used specifically to refer to the small holes in spinnerets through which the polymer flows in the manufacture of fibers.
Pick is a single filling yarn carried by one trip of the weft-insertion device across the loom. The picks interface with the warp ends to form a woven fabric.
Pick Count is the number of filling picks per inch, or per centimeter of fabric. Pick and end counts are two fabric specifications needed to design a fabric.
Pick Counter is a mechanical device that counts the picks as they are inserted during weaving.
Ply is the number of single yarns twisted together to form a plied yarn, or the number of plied yarns twisted together to form a cord.
A manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of an ester of a substituted aromatic carboxylic acid, including but not restricted to substituted terephthalic units and para-substituted hydroxy-benzoate units. They are high is strength and are resistant to shrinking and stretching.
A manufactured fiber made of polymerized polyethylene units, often in monofilament form as well as in filament form. The fibers have low specific gravity, very low retention of moisture, the same tensile weight wet or dry, are resistant to mildew and insects.
Polyamide Fiber is a manufactured fiber formed from the condensation polymer of an aromatic anhydride and an aromatic diisocyanate. A polyamide fiber is a high shrinkage fiber.
Polypropylene Fiber is a manufactured olefin fiber made from polymers or copolymers of polypropylene. This is a tough fiber with a tenacity of 3.5 to 4.5 grams/denier and a melting point of 165° C. It is so light in weight that it floats and is highly resistant to mechanical abuse and chemical attack.
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Fiber
A fluoride containing manufactured fiber characterized by high chemical stability, relative inertness and high melting point. The fiber has moderate tensile strength, resistance to chemicals and high temperature. It has very low frictional characteristics and has a slippery hand. It works well in filtration, packaging, and in combination with other fibers in self-lubricating bearings.
Primary Colors consist of magenta, yellow, and cyan (red, yellow, blue). These are the subtractive primaries used when mixing dyes and paints to make other colors.
Projectile Loom is a shuttleless loom that uses small, bullet like projectiles to carry the filling yarn through the warp shed. Fill is inserted on the same side of the loom and a tucked selvage is formed.
Quartz Fiber is a pure silica that has been melted and drawn into glass-like fibers. Used for heat resistance and high dielectric strength.
Quill is a light, tapered tube of wood, metal, paper, or plastic on which the filling yarn is wound for use in the shuttle during weaving.
Quilling is the process of winding filling yarns onto filling bobbins, or quills, in preparation for use in the shuttle for weaving.
Rapier Looms utilize a thin metallic shaft with a yarn-gripping device to carry a yarn or filament through the weaving shed. In a single rapier machine, the yarn is carried across the fabric by the rapier. In a double rapier machine, the yarn is passed from one rapier to the other in the middle of the fabric.
Raw Fiber is the textile fiber in its natural state, such as silk or cotton as it comes from the bale.
Rayon Fiber is a manufactured fiber composed of regenerated cellulose as well as manufactured fibers composed of regenerated cellulose in which the substituents have replaced not more than 15% of the hydrogens of the hydroxyl group. The process itself and the structure of the yarn regulate their strength.
Reed is a comb like device on a loom that separates the warp yarns and also beats each succeeding filling yarn against those already woven. The space between two adjacent wires of the reed is called a dent. The fineness of the reed is calculated by the number of dents to the inch. The more dents to the inch, the finer the reed.
Roll Goods is a fabric rolled up on a core after it has been produced. It is described relative to weight and width of the roll and length of the material on the roll.
Sailcloth is any heavy, strongly made woven canvas, linen, jute, polyester, nylon, aramid, etc. that is used for sails.
Satin Weave is one of the basic weaves (i.e., plain, satin, and twill). The face of the fabric consists almost completely of warp, or filling floats produced in the repeat of the weave. Satin weave fabric has a characteristic smooth, luxurious surface and has a considerably greater number of yarns in the set of threads (either the warp or filling) that forms the face than in the other set.
Scouring is the operation to remove the sizing and tint used on the warp yarn in weaving and, in general, to clean the fabric prior to dyeing.
Scrim is either considered a lightweight, open weave, course fabric. Or, a fabric with open construction used as base fabric in the production of coated or laminated fabrics.
Seamless is a term that describes a tubular knit, or woven fabric without seams, (e.g. seamless hosiery), or seamless woven tube like a fire hose.
Selvage is the narrow edge of woven fabric that runs parallel to the warp. It is made with stronger yarns in a tighter construction than the body of the fabric to prevent unraveling. A fast selvage encloses all, or part of the picks, and a selvage is not fast when the filling threads are cut at the fabric edge after each pick.
Shot is the number of filling yarns per row of tufts.
Shuttle is a moving device usually made of basal wood with a metal tip that carries filling yarns through the shed in the weaving process.
Shuttless Loom is a loom where a device other than a shuttle is used for weft insertion (e.g. rapier or air-jet weaving).
Sizing is the generic term for compounds that are applied to warp yarn to bind the fiber together and to stiffen the yarn to provide better abrasion resistance.
Skein is a continuous strand of yarn or fabric. Typically it is a specific length usually obtained by winding a definite number of turns on a reel.
Slasher is the machine used to apply size to the warp ends, while transferring the warp yarns from section beams to the loom beam.
Slub is a reference to a yarn defect consisting of a lump, or thick place on the yarn caused by lint, or small lengths of yarn adhering to it.
Slug is a thick place in a yarn, or a piece of lint entangled in yarn, cord, or fabric.
Spinneret is a metal disc containing numerous minute holes used in manufactured fiber extrusion. The spinning solution or melted polymer is forced through the holes to form fiber filaments.
Splicing is the joining together of two ends of yarn or cordage.
Staple are natural fibers or cut lengths from filaments. The staple lengths of natural fibers vary from less than 1-inch, as with some cotton fibers, to several feet for some hard fibers. Manufactured staple fibers are cut to definite length, from 8 inches down to 1.5 inches. The term staple (fiber) is used in the textile industry to distinguish natural or cut length manufactured fibers from filament.
Static is the accumulation of negative or positive electricity on the surface of fibers or fabrics because of inadequate electrical dissipation during processing.
Stiffness is the property of a fiber or fabric to resist bending, or to carry a load without deformation.
Strand is a single fiber, filament, or monofilament.
Stuffers are extra yarns running in the warp direction through a woven fabric to increase the fabric’s strength and weight.
Surfactant is a surface-active agent, i.e. a product that acts by modifying the surface or boundary between two phases. Typically used in cleaning or dyeing.
Swelling is the expansion of a fiber caused by the influence of a chemical, solvent, or agent. A property often used to facilitate dyeing.
A plain-weave fabric with a fine, smooth, crisp hand with a lustrous appearance. Taffeta fabric usually has a fine cross rib made by using a heavier filling yarn than warp yarn.
Take-up (Twist) is the change in length of a filament, yarn, or cord caused by twisting, expressed as a percentage of the original (untwisted) length.
Take-up (Yarn in Fabric)
The difference in distance between two points in a yarn as it lies in a fabric and the same two points after the yarn has been removed from the fabric and straightened under specified tension, expressed as a percentage of the straightened length.
Tape is a narrow woven fabric not over 8 inches in width.
Tear Strength is the force required beginning, or continuing a tear in a fabric under specified conditions.
Tensile Strength In general, is the strength shown by a specimen subjected to tension as distinct from torsion, compression, or shear.
Tensile Test is a method of measuring the resistance of yarn or fabric to a force tending to stretch the specimen in one direction.
Tenter Frame is a machine that dries fabric to a specified width under tension. The machine consists essentially of a pair of endless chains on horizontal tracks. The fabric is held firmly at the edges by pins, or clips on the two chains that diverge as they advance through the heated chamber, adjusting the fabric to the desired width.
- Is a unit for expressing linear density, equal to the weight in grams of one kilometer of yarn, filament, fiber or other textile strand.
- Or, the system of yarn numbering based on the use of Tex units.
Textile now applied generally to any one of the following; staple fibers and filaments able to be converted into woven, knit, or braided fabrics, or yarns made from natural of manufactured fibers.
Textile Materials is a general term for fibers, yarn intermediates, yarn, fabrics, and products made from fibers.
Any mechanical operation used to translate a textile fiber or yarn to a fabric or other textile material. This includes such operations as opening, carding, spinning, plying, twisting, texturing, coning, quilling, beaming, slashing, weaving, braiding, and knitting.
Texture is a term describing the surface effect of a fabric such as dull, lustrous, wooly, stiff, soft, fine, course, etc.
Textured Yarns are yarns that develop stretch and bulk on subsequent processing.
Thermal Shrinkage is the amount shrinkage of a fiber measured in dry air vs. that measured in its saturated state. Usually expressed as a %.
Thermoplastic is a term used to describe a plastic material that is permanently fusible, i.e. manufactured fibers that will soften at higher temperatures.
Thermoset is a term used to describe a plastic that, once formed, will not melt.
Thread is a slender strong strand designed for sewing, or other needlework. However, it is a generalized term for yarns used in weaving and knitting (i.e. Thread Count).
Thread Count is the number of ends (wales) and picks (courses) per inch in a woven or knitted fabric.
Transition Temperature is the temperature at which some radical change, usually a phase change (i.e. melting point and boiling point).
Traveler is a C-shaped metal clip that revolves around the ring on a ring spinning frame. It guides the yarn onto the bobbin as it inserts twist into the yarn.
Twill Weave is a fundamental weave characterized by diagonal lines produced by a series of floats staggered in the warp direction.
Twist is the number of turns about a yarn’s axis per unit of length. Twist is expressed as turns per inch (tpi), turns per meter (tpm) or turns per centimeter (tpc).
Twist, Direction of
The direction of twist in yarns and other textile strands is indicated by the capital letters S and Z. Yarn is S-twisted if when it is held vertically, the spirals around its central axis slope in the same direction as in the middle portion of the letter S (i.e. to the right) and Z twisted if they slope to the left, i.e. middle section of the Z.
Twist Setting is a process for fixing the twist in yarns to deaden torque and to eliminate kinking during further processing. This process usually involves using steam.
Ultraviolet Degradation is the weakening or deterioration caused by exposure to ultraviolet rays of sunlight.
Ultraviolet Resistance is the ability to retain strength and resist deterioration on exposure to sunlight.
Uneven dyeing is a fabric dyeing that shows variations in shade resulting from incorrect processing, dyeing methods, or from the use of faulty materials.
Warp is the set of yarn in all woven fabrics that runs lengthwise and parallel to the selvage and is interwoven with the filling.
Warp Beam is a large spool or flanged cylinder around which the warp yarn, or ends, are wound in a uniform and parallel arrangement.
Warp Drawing is the process where warp yarns are wound onto the beam in preparation for weaving. This process gives uniform end to end properties.
Waterproof is the term applied to materials that are impermeable to water. Waterproof fabrics have no open pores and are also impermeable to air.
Water-Repellent is the term applied to fabrics that can shed water but are permeable to air and comfortable to wear.
Wear Test an abrasion test for fabric wear, abrasion, flexibility, washing, crushing, etc., in which the fabric is made into a garment, worn for a specific length of time and then assessed for performance.
Weather-Ometer is an instrument used in measuring the weather resistance of textiles. It can simulate various weather conditions such as sunlight, rain, dew, and thermal-shock.
Weaving is the method or process of interlacing two yarns so that they cross each other at right angles to produce woven fabric.
Webbing is a strong, narrow fabric, that is closely woven in a variety of weaves and principally used for belts and straps that can withstand strain.
Weft Insertion is any one of various methods, shuttle, rapier, water jet, etc. for making a pick during weaving.
Wick-ability is the ability of a fiber or a fabric to disperse moisture and allow it to pass through to the surface, so that evaporation can take place.
Winding is the process of transferring yarn or thread from one type of package to another.
Woven Fabric refers to a fabric composed of two sets of yarns, the warp and filling yarns, that is formed by weaving, which is the interlacing of these sets of yarns.
Yardage is the amount, or length of a fabric expressed in yards.
Yarn is the term for a continuous strand of textile fibers and filaments in a form suitable for knitting, weaving, braiding, or otherwise intertwining to form a textile fabric.
Yarn-Dyed is the process of dyeing yarn prior to it being woven or knitted. Also known as package dyeing.
Yarn Number is the relative measure of the fineness of yarns.
Yield is the number of linear or square yards of fabric per pound of fiber or yarn. Also, it is considered the number of finished square yards per pound of greige fabric.
Zero Twist is a yarn that is considered twist-less, or devoid of twist.